floatingmaterial,求这部动漫的名字谢谢?

本文目录索引

1,求这部动漫的名字谢谢?

动漫:《机动警察剧场版:东京毁灭战》 人物:香贯花昆西 人物简介: 香贯花被派往日本接受训练,担任警视厅警备部特科车辆二课第二小队队员,二号机指挥担当,阶级相当于巡査部长的Sergeant。出生于美国夏威夷檀香山市,是美日混血第三代后裔。麻省理工大学毕业,原本在纽约任职小队长职级警官,精通英语、日语及华语,擅长射击、柔道及茶道。与同样具有实力的熊耳武绪,产生互相较劲的竞争关系。和太田一样是现实主义者,痛恨罪恶,矢志扑灭犯罪,但她比太田更冷静更有谋略。

求这部动漫的名字谢谢?

2,如何评价 Android L / Material Design 的漂浮按钮设计?

一、核心思想
,aterial design的核心思想,就是把物理世界的体验带进屏幕。去掉现实中的杂质和随机性,保留其最原始纯净的形态、空间关系、变化与过渡,配合虚拟世界的灵活特性,还原最贴近真实的体验,达到简洁与直观的效果。
Material design是最重视跨平台体验的一套设计语言。由于规范严格细致,保证它在各个平台使用体验高度一致。不过目前还只有Google自家的服务这么做,毕竟其他平台有自己的规范与风格。
二、材质与空间
材质
Material design中,最重要的信息载体就是魔法纸片。纸片层叠、合并、分离,拥有现实中的厚度、惯性和反馈,同时拥有液体的一些特性,能够自由伸展变形。
这些是纸片的魔法特性,真实纸片所不具备的能力:
纸片可以伸缩、改变形状
纸片变形时可以裁剪内容,比如纸片缩小时,内容大小不变,而是隐藏超出部分
多张纸片可以拼接成一张
一张纸片可以分裂成多张
纸片可以在任何位置凭空出现
不过,魔法纸片有些效果是禁止的:
一项操作不能同时触发两张纸片的反馈
层叠的纸片,海报高度不能相同
纸片不能互相穿透
纸片不能弯折
纸片不能产生透视,必须平行于屏幕
空间
Material design引入了z轴的概念,z轴垂直于屏幕,用来表现元素的层叠关系。z值(海拔高度)越高,元素离界面底层(水平面)越远,投影越重。这里有一个前提,所有的元素的厚度都是1dp。
所有元素都有默认的海拔高度,对它进行操作会抬升它的海拔高度,操作结束后,它应该落回默认海拔高度。同一种元素,同样的操作,抬升的高度是一致的。
注意:这不止是设计中的概念,开发人员确实可以通过一个值来控制元素的海拔高度和投影。
三、动画
Material design重视动画效果,它反复强调一点:动画不只是装饰,它有含义,能表达元素、界面之间的关系,具备功能上的作用。
easing
动画要贴近真实世界,就要重视easing。物理世界中的运动和变化都是有加速和减速过程的,忽然开始、忽然停止的匀速动画显得机械而不真实。考虑动画的easing,要先考虑它在现实世界中的运动规律。
水波反馈

所有可点击的元素,都应该有这样的反馈效果。通过这个动画,将点击的位置与所操作的元素关联起来,体现了Material design动画的功能性。
转场效果
通过过渡动画,表达界面之间的空间与层级关系,并且跨界面传递信息。
从父界面进入子界面,需要抬升子元素的海拔高度,并展开至整个屏幕,反之亦然。
多个相似元素,动画的设计要有先后次序,起到引导视线的作用。
相似元素的运动,要符合统一的规律。

3,浙江中医院违规操作致5名患者被感染艾滋,你怎么看?

舞茸β-葡聚糖对HIV(艾滋病)病人的效果 Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) gulcan in HIV-infected patients 【摘要翻译】 为评估一种从舞茸中提取的β-葡聚糖MD-Fraction(舞茸D-fraction)对艾滋病(HIV)感染病人的效果,进行了长期的实验。参与实验的HIV感染者被跟踪监测CD4+ 细胞计数,病毒载量,艾滋病感染症状,继发病状况,以及健康状态。20位患者的CD4+细胞计数增加到原来的1.4-1.8倍,8位患者降低到原来的0.8-0.5倍。9位病人的病毒载量增加,10位降低。尽管如此,85%的受试者对于HIV引起的症状和继发病的感觉变好,这表明舞茸D-fraction对于艾滋病HIV患者具有积极的影响。 关键词: 抗HIV活性,CD4+细胞,舞茸,IL-2,MD-Fraction 注:CD4+细胞是人体免疫系统中的一种重要免疫细胞,由于艾滋病病毒攻击对象是CD4+细胞,所以其检测结果对艾滋病治疗效果的判断和对患者免疫功能的判断有重要作用。 【论文原文】 Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) gulcan in HIV-infected patients Hiroaki Nanba1)*, Noriko Kodama1), Douglas Schar 2) and Denise Turner 2) 1)Department of Microbial Chemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1, Motoyamakita-machi, Higashinada-ku, kobe 658-8558, Japan2)Herbal Clinical Research, 140 Columbia Road, London E2 7RG, U.K. The effects of MD-Fraction, a β-glucan extracted from Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), on the health status of individuals suffering from HIV infection were evaluated in a long-term trial. The HIV status of the 35 respondents who participated in the study was followed by monitoring CD4+ cell counts, viral load measure, sympotoms of HIV infection, status of secondary disease, and sense of well-being. Twenty patients reported to increase in CD4+ cell counts to 1.4-1.8 times, and 8 patients reported a decrease to 0.8-0.5 times. Viral load was reported to increase in 9 patients and decrease in 10 patients. However, 85% of respondents reported an increased sense of well-being with regard to various symptoms and secondary diseases caused by HIV. These results suggest that Maitake D-Fraction had a positive impact in HIV patients.Key Words : anti-HIV activity; CD4+ cell; Grifola frondosa (Maitake); IL-2; MD-Fraction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by HIV infection, which attacks helper T cells (CD4+ cells) and decreases the body’s immunity. In 1991, we studied the effect of a Grifola frondosa S.F. Gray (Maitake) extract, named MD-Fraction on HIV, which is believed to be a cause of AIDS. Sulfated MD-Fraction was found to prevent HIV from killing helper T (CD4+) cells: almost 100% of CD4+ cells survived challenge by HIV at concentrations of sulfated MD-Fraction of around 1 pg/ml, and the results were presented in an abstract paper at the 8th International AIDS conference in Amsterdam in July 1992. National Institute of Health and National Cancer Institute in U.S.A. also confirmed the anti-HIV activity of the sulfated form of MD-Fraction. NCI doctors have recognized that the sulfated MD-Fraction is the most effective among all anti-HIV polysaccharides known to date and is as powerful as the drug azidothymidine (AZT). However, the sulfated MD-Fraction has the strong side-effect of toxicity to cells in vivo. On the other hand, we have reported that a β1,6-glucan having a β 1,3-branched chain (named MD-Fraction) can enhance immunocompent cell activities (Hishida et al., 1988; Nanba et al., 1987; Nanba et al., 1993).In this paper, we report that Maitake appears to work on several levels in HIV conditions, by (a) direct inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), (b) stimulation of the body’s own natural defense system against HIV, and (c) making the body less vulnerable to opportunistic disease. Materials and Methods: Preparation of Maitake tablets Tablets containing 250 mg of dried Maitake powder(φ200 μm) and 5 mg of vitamin C were prepared with a tabloid machine.Preparation of MD-Fraction Dried Maitake powder (500 g) was autclaved with 3,000 ml of distilled water at 120℃ for 60 min, and the water-soluble layer obtained was saturated with the same volume of ethanol at 4℃ for 12 h. After removal of floating material, this ethanol solution was saturated to 80% with ethanol and stored at 4℃ for 10 h. The pellet obtained by centrifugation at 5,000×g for 20 min was suspended in a small volume of distilled water and protein was removed by passage through a DEAE-cellulofine column (4×80cm). Finally 1 g of purified MD-Fraction was prepared.Detection of virions The HIV genome is known to have nine genes, three expressing structural protein and six expressing regulating protein. Anti-HIV-Env antibody was produced in blood from 10 wk to 12 yr after HIV infection. The coagulation test of antigen was performed with HIV-Env antibody collected from blood. Viral loads were counted in 50-μl portions of patients’ serum.Detection of interleukin-2 (IL-2) Production of IL-2 in blood was detected with IL-2 ELISA Kit Intertest-2X (Genzyme Co. U.S.A.)Counting of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells CD4+ cells were counted by flow cytometric analysis after treatment of 10 μl of blood with CD4+- monoclonal antibody (Cytovax Biotechologies Inc.) The count of CD8+ cells was obtained by subtracting the CD4+ cell count from the total count of T cells determined by flow cytometric analysis.Administration of Maitake A supply of Maitake was given to each HIV carrier at a dose level of 6 g of tablets or 20mg of purified MD-Fraction together with 4 g of tablets per day for 360d. Results:The main focus in monitoring the progress of HIV disease is CD4+ cells (helper T cells). The normal range of CD4+ cell count is 500-1,200 cells/10μl of blood. A level of 200-500 cells indicates that some damage has occured. Below 200 cells, the individual is highly susceptible to secondary diseases. An elevated viral load indicates an increased risk of damage to CD4+ cells. The significance of these activities in regard to HIV infection relates to the immune system. Both IL-2 and interferon are activated by the immune system response to infection by viral disease. After administration of Maitake tablets for 12 mo to 35 respondents (24 in England and 11 in U.S.A.), 20 responders reported an increase in CD4+ cell counts and 8 reported a decrease , as shown in Table 1. Nine respondents reported an increase in viral load, 10 reported a decrease and 2 patients reported static, Typical individual results were as follows. Patient A The initial CD4+ count of 90 cells rose as high as 460 cells (average CD4+ count: 355) in the study period, but viral load was undetected throughout. Previous symptoms were Kaposi’s sarcoma, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and allergic conjunctivitis, all of which resolved and remained controlled during study period. The patient consistently reported feeling very well and energy levels much improved.Patient B The initial CD4+ count of 400 cells rose to 620 cells after the treatment. The viral load of 15,200 copies/ml in CD4+ cells decreased to 5,000 copies/ml. IL-2 production was also increased 3.1 times by Maitake treatment. Previous symptoms were Kaposi’s sarcoma, verrucae, anal warts, anal herpes, diarrhea, chest infections, and fatigue. Following the study period, when the patient received 6 g of Maitake tablets together with 20mg of MD-Fraction per day, Kaposi’s sarcoma became static, verrucae and anal warts were resolved, and other symptoms became intermittent.Patient C The initial CD4+ count of 510 cells showed little change at 500 cells after the study, but the viral load of 60,000 copies/ml in CD4+ cell decreased to 1,000 copies/ml. The patient had day and night sweats, bouts of colds, mucous membrane irritation and fatigue as previous symptoms, but after the course of Maitake all symptoms were resolved. In particular, a direct effect on the sweats was observed.Patient D The initial CD4+ count of 425 rose to 680 counts (average 513.3) during the study. The viral load of 20,000 copies/ml increased to 93,000 copies/ml, but skin, oral, and gastric Candida, catarrh, irritable bowel, and aching muscles as previous symptoms were all improved by Maitake.Patient E The initial CD4+ count of 17 cells decreased to 7 cells during the study, while the viral load of 55,000 copies/ml increased to 62,000 copies/ml. AIDS, oral Candida, and wasting disease as previous symptoms persisted despite the treatment with Maitake. The CD4+ cell counts and HIV viral loads of other patients who received Maitake for 1 yr are shown in Tables 2 and 3. It is known that long infection period of HIV makes seriously symptoms and secondary disease. Therefore, as shown in Tables 4 and 5, we examined that these symptoms and diseases were improved by Maitake treatment. Symptoms depends on HIV infection, such as weight loss, hair loss, night sweat, fever, dry cough and leg pain, were improved by Maitake almost in 50% of patients (as Table 4), also secondary diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, herps, kaposi’s sarcoma and mycopathy, were cured in 40-50% of patients. Table 6 indicates that the percentage of patients reporting changes in symptoms and sense of well-being following treatment. Discussion :The MD-Fraction exhibited an enhancing effect on CD4+ cells, the target cells of HIV, upon oral administration in animals (Hishida et al., 1988). Even though it was a non-controlled trial, this clinical study indicated that MD-Fraction and Maitake powder were effective in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, or liver cancer. These human tests suggest that the active ingredients of Maitake have significant healing and preventative potential in HIV-responders by stimulating the immune system. The present study indicates that when MD-Fraction and Maitake enhanced the activities of immuno-competent cells such as macrophages, cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) or helper T cell (CD4+), the HIV in CD4+ cells was directly killed or its multiplication was suppressed. However, even if these cellular activities were increased by MD-Fraction, HIV in CD4+ cells of AIDS patients did not decrease. All of the results shown here indicate that there is evidence to support a more structured investigation in to the potential benefits of Maitake and MD-Fraction in the treatment of HIV infection. The results also indicate that this trial study needs to be done on a larger scales, as many questions remain unanswered. Literature cited:Hishida I., Nanba H. And Kuroda H. 1988. Anti-tumor activity exhibited by oral administered extract from fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36:1819-1827.Nanba H., Hamaguchi A. and Kuroda H. 1987. The chemical structure of an anti-tumorpolysaccharide in fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35: 1162-1168.Nanba H. and George S. R. 1993. Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) for HIV-positive or fibroid tumor patients. 113th Congr. Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, Osaka, Japan, March 29-31, p.212.Nanba H.1993. Anti-tumor activity of orally administered D-Fraction from Maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa. J Naturopath. Med. 4: 10-15.

4,浙江医生违规致5人染艾滋案如何宣判?

此前备受社会关注的“浙江省中医院一医生违规操作,致5名患者感染艾滋病”一事近日有最新进展。相关刑事判决书显示,涉事医生在操作过程中严重违反“一人一管一抛弃”的职业规定,致使5人感染了HIV病毒(其中两人已怀孕)。 对此,杭州市上城区人民法院于2017年12月12日判决涉事医生犯医疗事故罪,判处有期徒刑2年6个月。 2017年1月,浙江省中医院被曝“一医生操作不当,致使患者感染艾滋病”一事引发舆论关注。据浙江省卫计委2017年2月9日通报,当年1月26日下午,该委接到浙江省中医院报告,该院一位技术人员在某次技术操作中严重违反规程,该次操作涉及的治疗者可能存在感染艾滋病病毒风险。 事发后,有关部门已对浙江省中医院相关责任人做出严肃处理:免去院长的行政职务和党委副书记职务,给予党内严重警告处分;免去党委书记的党内职务和副院长的行政职务;撤销分管副院长职务,免去其党委委员并给予党内严重警告处分;撤销检验科主任职务;免去医务部主任职务;免去院感科科长职务。直接责任人以涉嫌医疗事故罪由公安机关立案侦查,并已采取刑事强制措施。 鉴于赵金方犯罪后自动投案,并如实供述自己的罪行,有自首情节,且认罪悔罪,可予从轻处罚,对辩护人所提的相应意见予以采纳。但辩护人以赵金方主观上系出于侥幸为由要求从轻的意见,审理认为,正因为医疗事故罪主观方面系由过失构成,刑法规定了相对轻缓的刑罚,再以过失为由要求从轻处罚显然于法无据,故不予支持。 据此,杭州市上城区人民法院于2017年12月12日一审判处被告人赵金方犯医疗事故罪,判处有期徒刑2年6个月。 来源: 北青网

5,船舶图纸符号大全

常见的一些缩写,希望你能用上
1 A/B Above Base Line 基准线以上
2 A/C Anticorrosive Paint 防腐涂料
3 A/F Antifouling Paint 防污漆
4 ABS American Bureau of Shipping 美国船级社
5 Abt Abt (About ) 大约,关于
6 ACCOM. Accommodation 船室,居住区
7 ACCM.L Accommodation Ladder 舷梯
8 ACCU Automatic control system certified for unattended eng. Room 无人机舱自动控制系统鉴定
9 AFRAMAX Average Freight Rate Assessment at the max. of Deadweight C.O.T 最大负载时平均运费率评估
10 A.P Bhd After Peak Bulkhead 船尖舱舱壁
11 ANSI American National Standards Institute 美国国家标准协会
12 AP After Perpendicular 艉垂线
13 API American Petroleum Institute 美国石油组织
14 APT After Peak Tank 尾尖舱
15 ARPA Automatic Rader Plotting Aids 自动雷达测图仪
16 ASTM American Society of Testing Materials 美国材料实验协会
17 B mld Moulded Breadth 型宽
18 B/C Bulk Carrier 散货船
19 B.L Base line 基线
20 Basic Design 基本设计
21 Ballast Control Room 压载控制室
22 BHP Brake Horse Power 制动马力
23 BOG Boil-off Gas 蒸发气体
24 BOM Bill of Material 材料清单
25 Bkt Bracket 支架,肘板
26 BHD Bulkhead 隔壁, 防水壁
27 C/H Cargo Hold 货舱
28 C.T Cable Trunk 电缆管道
29 CCI Class Comment Item 船级社说明项目
30 CCR Cargo Control
31 C, C/L Center Line 中心线
32 C.G Center of Gravity 重心
33 Cert. Certificate 证书
34 CFR Code of Federal Regulations 联合代码
35 CGT Compensated Gross Tonnage 补偿总吨
36 C.L Chain Locker 锚链舱
37 C/Eng. Chief Engineer 轮机长
38 C/D Cofferdam 隔离舱,围堰
39 COLREG International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 国际海上避碰规则
40 Corr. Bhd Corrugated Bulkhead 波形舱壁
41 COT Crude Oil Tanker 原油油船
42 COT Cargo Oil Tank 货油舱
43 CPU Central Processing Unit 中央处理器
44 CRI Client Request Item 船东的要求项目
45 Cyl. Liner Cylinder Liner 气缸套
46 D mld Moulded Depth 型深
47 D/B Double Bottom 双层底
48 D/B W.B.T Double Bottom Water Ballast Tank 双层底水压载舱
49 Td Designed Load Draft 设计满载吃水
50 DGPS Differential Global Positioning System 微型全球定位系统
51 D/G Diesel Generator 柴油发电器(D/G)
52 DLW Design Load Water Line 设计载重水线
53 DNV Det Norske Veritas 挪威船级社
54 DOT Diesel Oil 柴油
55 DWT Deadweight Tonnage 载重量
56 E/Rm Arr't Engine Room Arr't 机舱布置图
57 ECR Engine Control Room 发动机控制台
58 EHP Effective Horse Power 有效马力
59 Elev. Elevation 侧面图
60 Fab Fabrication 加工
61 FEM Finite Element Method 有限单元法
62 FEU Forty-Feet Equivalent Unit 40尺集装箱
63 FOC Fuel Oil Consumption 燃料消耗量
64 F'cle Dk Forecastle Deck 首楼甲板
65 FP Fore Perpendicular 船首垂线
66 FPP Fixed Pitch Propeller 定螺距螺旋浆
67 FPSO Floating Production,Storage and Offloading Vessel
浮式生产储油卸油船
68 FPT Forepeak Tank 首尖舱
69 Fr. Frame 构架
70 F.S Frame Space 肋骨间隔
71 FWT Fresh Water Tank 淡水舱
72 G/A General Arrangement 总体布置图
73 GL Germanisher Lloyd 德国船级
74 GM Metacentric Height 稳心高度
75 GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
全球海上遇险和安全系统
76 GT Gross Tonnage 总吨数
77 HFO Heavy Fuel Oil 重质燃油
78 H.T.C.W.S High Temp. Cooling Water System 高温冷却水系统
79 I/E Inclining Experiment 倾斜试验
80 IACS International Association of Classification Socities
国际船级联合会
81 ICCP Impressed Current Cathodic Protection 外加电流阴极防护
82 ID Identification No. 身份证号码
83 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission 国际电气标准会议
84 IGC International Gas Code 国际气体代码
85 ILLC International Load Line Convention 国际船舶载重线协定
86 ILO International Labor Organization 国际劳动机构
87 IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
国际海上危险物规定
88 IMO International Maritime Organization 国际海上机构
89 INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite system
国际海上卫星系统
90 INS Integrated Navigation System 综合式集成导航系统
91 IOPP International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
国际防止原油污染证书
92 ISO International Standardization Organization
国际标准化机构
93 ITU International Telecommunication Union 国际电子通信联盟
94 JB Junction Box 接线盒,分线盒
95 JIS Japanese Industrial Standard 日本标准工业规则
96 K/L Keel Laying 铺设龙骨
97 KR Korean Register of Shipping 韩国船级协会
98 KS Korean Industrial Standard 韩国工业标准
99 Kts Knots 节(船速)
100 L/C Launching 下水
101 LBP Length Between Perpendiculars 两柱间长
102 LCG Longitudinal Center of Gravity 纵方向上重心
103 LNG Liquified Natural Gas 液态天然气
104 LO Lubricating Oil 润滑油
105 LOA Length Over all 全长
106 Longl. Bhd Longitudinal Bulkhead 纵舱壁
107 L.S Longitudinal Space 纵通材 间隔
108 LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas 液化石油气
109 LR Lloyd's Register of Shipping 英国船级社
110 L.O Stor. Tk Lub. Oil Storage Tank 润滑油储存舱
111 M/V Motor Vessel 内燃机船
112 MARPOL The Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships
海洋防船舶污染
113 MDO Marine Diesel Oil 船用柴油
114 MEPC Maritime Environment Protection Committee
海洋环境保护委员会
115 MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identification No.
海洋移动通信认证号
116 MSC Maritime Safety Committee 海事安全委员会
117 NK Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 日本船级社
118 NM Nautical Mile 海里(合1.852公里)
119 NMD Norwegian Maritime Directorate 挪威海事高级别会议
120 NT Net Tonnage 净吨数
121 OBO Ore-Bulk-Oil Carrier 矿石散装油轮
122 OCIMF Oil Companies' International Maritime Forum
油类公司的国际海事法庭
123 ODME Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment 油泄监视设备
124 P & ID Piping and Instrumentation Diagram 管路及仪器装设系统图
125 P/C Product Carrier 油船,成品油船
126 P/N Part Number 零件编号
127 PCC Pure Car Carrier 纯载车船
128 PO Purchase Order 订购单
129 POR Purchase Order Request 订购单要求
130 P.E Pre-Erection 先行合拢
131 PSC Port State Control 港口国管理
132 QCV Quick Closing Valve 速闭阀
133 R & D Research and Development 研究开发
134 RINA Registro Italiano Navale 意大利船级
135 Rise of Floor 船底倾斜度
136 RO/RO Roll-On/Roll-Off) Ship 滚装船
137 Rolling 横倾
138 RS Russia Register of Shipping 俄罗斯船舶检验局
139 SATCOM Satellite Communication 卫星通信
140 SBG See Berufasgenossenshaft 德国船舶安全事项检查机关
141 SC Steel Casting 铸钢件
142 Sec. Section 剖面图
143 SF Stowage Factor 积载因素
144 SHP Shaft Horse Power 轴马力
145 SLWL Summer Load Water Line 夏季满载吃水线
146 SNAME The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 造船与轮机工程师协会
147 SNMA Swedish National Maritime Administration 瑞典海事局
148 SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention 海上人命安全公约
149 Spec. Specification 详细说明书
150 SPM Single Point Mooring 单点泊系
151 S/C Steel Cutting 切割刚材
152 S/G Rm Steering Gear Room 舵机室
153 S/T C.W.Tk Stern Tube Cooling Water Tank 艉轴管冷却水舱
154 stiff. Stiffener 加强件
155 Stri.) Stringer 纵梁(纵向加强肋,吊绳)
156 SUS Stainless Steel 不锈钢
157 SWBM Still Water Bending Moment 静水中弯曲力矩
158 SWL Safe Working Load 安全工作负荷
159 sym. Symmetrical 对称的
160 T/Top Tank Top 内底板液舱顶盖
161 TCG Transverse Center of Gravity 横向重心
162 TEU (Twenty-Feet Equivalent Unit) 20英尺集装箱
163 TPC Tonnes per Centimeter Immersion 每厘米吃水吨数
164 ULCC Ultra Large Crude Oil Carrier 300K
超大型原油运输船(300K以上)
165 UMS Unattended Machinery Space 无人机械区
166 USCG United States Coast Guard 美国海岸警卫队
167 VCG Vertical Center of Gravity 垂直重心
168 V/D Vendor Drawing 制作者图纸
169 V/L Vertical Ladder 直梯
170 VLBC Very Large Bulk Carrier 超大型散货船
171 VLCC Very Large Crude Oil Carrier 超大型原油运输船
172 VRC Valve Remote Control 远距离控制阀
173 W-1 One-man Watch Keeping 一人持续操作
174 W.T Bhd Watertight Bulkhead 水密舱墙
175 WBT Water Ballast Tank 压载水舱

6,动名词和不定式短语的问题?

动词不定是做宾补强调的是过程,动名词强调的是在进行.过去分词强调的是被做二既然题中说经常,就是强调过程,所以用不定式.如果前面说的事情是偶尔的,就得用动名词做宾补

明白了吧,再给你出几道题考考你。
例如 A:many people like watching others play game.
B:many people like to watch others playing game
1)在A句中为什么用不定式play 而在B中却用playing
(2)假若把to watch 换成often 可以吗?
(3)动名词短语和不定式短语在句中若做其它成分可以吗。那短语里面的watching to watch会改变吗



Working with you is a pleasure. 和你一起工作是一种 乐趣。(主语)

Seeing is believing.眼见为实。(主语)

Another goal was ending the chaos in the country. 另一个目标是结束国家的混乱状态。(表语)

What he got in his mind was walking all the way to town.他心中的想的办法是一路步行进城。(表语)

My job is teaching.我的工作是教学。(表语)

To keep money that you have found is stealing.私藏拾到的钱等于偷窃。(表语)

Her shoes wants mending. 她的鞋该修理了。(宾语)

I have finished writing this book.我已经写完这本书了。(宾语)

She left without saying good-bye to us.她没有向我们告别就走了。(介词宾语)

My brother is fond of skating. 我弟弟喜欢滑冰。(介词宾语)

Thank you for giving me some help. 谢谢你给我些帮助。(介词宾语)

§10由于动名词是动词的一种形式,因此动名词也具有动词的一些特征。动名词可以带直接宾语;可以被副词修饰。例如:

My hobby is collecting stamps. 我的爱好是集邮。(stamps是动名词collecting的宾语)

Meeting you has been a great pleasure.见到你是件很快乐的事。(you是动名词meeting的宾语)

I like driving fast. 我喜欢开快车。(副词fast修饰动名词driving)

动名词还有几种形式:


主动形式
被动形式

一般式
doing
being done

完成式
Having done
Having been done


§ 11动名词(短语)的句法功能:

1.动名词具有名词的特征,做主语。例如:

Talking mends no holes. 空谈无济于事。

Sweeping the floor is my wife's everyday work.扫地是我妻子的日常工作。

Doing morning exercises is good for your health. 做早操对你的健康有好处。

【注意】注意以下句型,“it”是形式主语,动名词是正真的主语。动名词做主语时谓语动词用单数。例如:

It is no good smoking and drinking. I suggest that you should give them up.吸烟喝酒没有好处。我建议你应该戒掉。

It is a waste of time watching TV all day.整天看电视是浪费时间。

It is no use operating on this woman. She ought to have been sent here two hours ago. 给这个妇女做手术已经没有用了,她本来应该在两个小时之前送来。

Living together with you has been a great pleasure.和你住在一起真高兴。

2.作表语

My job is teaching English.我的工作是教英语。

The only thing that interests her is dancing.唯一使她感兴趣的事情是跳舞。

The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers.真正的问题是了解消费者的需要。

To keep money you have found is stealing.捡到钱不交等于偷窃。

【注意】一般来说,动名词作表语表示主语的内容;而现在分词作表语表示主语的特征和属性。例如:

The work assigned to us is bringing the chairs downstairs.分配给我们的工作是把椅子带下楼来。(表示主语的内容)

Her job is raising pigs. 她的工作是养猪。(表示主语的内容)

The film was exciting. 这部电影激动人心。(表示主语的特征)

It is annoying that the meeting should be put off. 会议延期了使人扫兴。(表示主语的特征)

3.作宾语

Andrew hated giving anaesthetics. 安德罗极不喜欢麻醉工作。

I wouldn't mind going there with her.与她一起去那儿,我没有意见。

I assure you I wouldn't have troubled you if I could have avoided doing so. 我可以向你保证,如果当时我能避免的话,我是决不会麻烦你的。

I enjoy listening to music.我喜欢听音乐。

She couldn't risk missing that train. 我不能冒险误过那次火车。

I have finished writing this novel. 我已经写完了这本小说。

【注意】

1.只能用动名词作宾语,而不能用不定式作宾语的动词有:admit, abhor, acknowledge, advise, advocate, avoid, confess, consider, contemplate, defer, delay, deny, discontinue, dislike, enjoy, excuse, face, fancy, finish, grudge, can't help, imagine, include, involve, justify, keep, mind, necessitate, pardon, postpone, practise, renounce, resent, require, stand, suggest, understand, give up, leave off, put off等等。

2.在下列动词之后即可以用不定式,也可以用动名词。这样的动词有:like, love, hate, prefer, begin, commence, start, continue, attempt, intend, propose, can't bear, cease, choose, decline, deserve, disdain, dread, endure, forget, learn, mean, neglect, omit, recollect, recall, regret, try等等。例如:

Do you like swimming( to swim)? 你喜欢游泳吗?

We began listening (to listen)to music.我们开始听音

She propose making(to make)a change in our studying plan. 她建议把我们的学习计划做一些改动。

3.下列动词后既可接不定式,也可接动名词,但所表示的意思不同。例如:

1)remember to do something 记住要做某事

remember doing something 记得曾经做过某事

例如:

I remember posting the letter.我记得我把封信发出了。

Please remember to post the letter for me.请记住替我发信。

I remember seeing this film.我记得曾经看过这部电影。

I should remember to see the film.我应该记住去看这部电影。

2)forget to do something 忘记要做某事

forget doing 忘记曾经做过某事

例如:

I shall never forget seeing the Swiss Alps for the first time.我将永远忘不了我第一次游览瑞士阿尔卑斯山的情景。

I am afraid he will forget to write to me. 恐怕他会忘记写信给我。

3) stop to do something 停下某事去做……

stop doing something 停止做某事

例如:

I really must stop smoking. 我的确该戒烟。

I have been working all the morning. I have to stop to smoke a cigarette. 我已经工作了一上午了,我得停下抽支烟。

4) try to do something 设法做某事

try doing something (做某事)试试

例如:

Try to do your duty well. 尽力做好本职工作。

Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door.前门没有人听见你的声音,那么敲敲后门试一试。

5)regret to do something 因做某事感到悲哀(不愉快)

regret doing 因做某事感到后悔

例如:

I regret causing him so much inconvenience.我因给他带来许多不便而感到懊悔。

I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer your employment.我很抱歉地通知你,我们不能接受你的雇用。

6)mean doing 意味着或意思是

mean to do something 打算做某事或想要做某事

例如:

We know that learning a language does not mean just working in a class. 我们知道,学习一种语言并不意味着只是在课堂里学习。

I didn't mean to hurt your feelings. 我并没有想伤害你的感情。

7)go on to do something (做完某事)接着做另一件事

go on doing something 继续做某事

例如:

I hope it won't go on snowing all day and all night. 我希望雪不要整天整夜下个不停。

Our teacher welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the school regulations. 在欢迎新生后,我们的老师开始解释学校的规章制度。

8)need to do something 需要做某事(表示主动)

need doing something 需要……(表示被动)

例如:

You need to work harder. 你需要更加努力学习。

Your house needs painting. 你的房子需要油漆了。

9)want to do something 想做某事(表示主动)

want doing 需要……(表示被动)

例如:

I want to study French.我想学习法语。

The electric shaver wants repairing before it can be used. 电动剃须刀需经修理才能使用。

10)begin和start在下列三种情况下最好用动名词。

A.主语是物而不是人时。例如:

The ice began(started) to melt. 冰开始融化。

The barometer began (started)to fall. 气压计开始下降。

B.当begin或start 用于进行时态时。例如:

She is beginning (starting) to cook the dinner.她开始做饭。

C.当begin或start后面的动词指心理状态或精神活动时。例如:

I began to understand my past mistakes.我开始认识自己过去的错误。

She started to wonder who had done it. 她开始纳闷,这件事究竟是谁做的。

11)请比较以下句子:

The buses have ceased running.公共汽车已经停了。

The buses ceased to run. 公共汽车停掉不开了。

第一句的意思可能是:“公共汽车今天停开,但是明天将再开。“第二个句子的意思可能是:“公共汽车将停开很长的一段时间,也可能永远不再开了。”

12)在like, hate, prefer动词后,如果表示一般倾向,多用动名词作宾语,如果指特定的或具体的动作时,用不定式。例如:

I like watching TV. 我喜欢看电视。

I'd like to watch TV this afternoon.今天下午我想看电视。

I hate speaking before a big audience.我不喜欢在大庭广众面前讲话。

I hate to speak at the meeting today. 我今天不愿意在会上发言。

I prefer reading to watching TV.我情愿看书,不爱看电视。

I prefer to watch TV today. 我今天情愿看电视。

13) be afraid to do something 害怕(不敢)去做某事,(常会发生对自己或别人有伤害或令人畏惧的结果);而be afraid of doing something 表示害怕(担心)会发生某种不愿发生的或不应发生的情况(不一定是令人畏惧的情况),可译为“唯恐(怕)”。例如:

She was afraid of waking her husband up. 可能丈夫病了或很累,不应吵醒他。(恐怕发生不应发生的可能后果)

She was afraid to wake her husband up.(如叫醒丈夫,可能他要发火,责备她。(害怕去做应当做或必须做的事)

I am afraid of asking the teacher. 我害怕问老师。(要麻烦老师,是我不希望发生的)

I am afraid to ask the teacher. 我不敢问老师。(表示有必要去问,但老师可能要批评我)

4.能跟动名词的动词短语很多,常见的这样短语有:accuse of , be fond of , be capable of, be keen on, be proud of , be ashamed of, be responsible for, be sick of , be tired of , be afraid of , insist on, persist in, stick to , suspect …of, accuse…of, think of, dream of, approve of, prevent (stop, keep)…from, hear of 等。例如:

I am proud of working with you. 我为和你在一起工作感到骄傲。

She is good at singing and dancing.她擅长于唱歌跳舞。

I am thinking of going to the industrial exhibition this afternoon. 我想下午去看工业展览。

I am interested in skating. 我对滑冰感兴趣。

5.下列动词短语中的“to”是介词,不是不定式的符号,因此后面要接动名词或名词。accommodate oneself to 使……适应于,be accustomed to(accustom oneself to)习惯于(使……习惯于),be addicted to 沉湎于,admit to承认, be agreeable to欣然同意,confess to承认,confine oneself to使局限于,contribute to有助于,devote…to 把……奉献给……,be devoted to 献身于,专心于,be equal to能胜任,fall to 着手,have no (have an)objection to不反对,(反对),object to 反对,look forward to盼望,be opposed to反对,pay attention to 注意,lend oneself to帮助,prefer doing something to doing something宁愿……而不……,see to注意,take to开始从事于,when it comes to 谈到,至于,就……而论,be used to 习惯于等等。

例如:

When it comes to writing short essays, you had better ask his advice. 谈到写短篇文章,你最好请教他。

I don't feel equal to doing the work. 我感到不能胜任这工作。

I have got used to working on the night shift. 我上夜班已经习惯了。

I have been looking forward to writing a novel by myself.我一起盼望自己写一本小说。

She refused to admit to breaking the window.她拒绝承认打破窗子。

6.动名词也可以和以下短语连用,作状语。常见的短语有:apart from, for fear of, in case of, with a view to, with the object of, in the event of等等。例如:

We should stay at home today instead of going to school. 今天我们应该呆在家里而应去上学。

He did such a thing with the object of improving his oral English. 他这样做完全是为了提高英语口语水平。

§ 12动名词的完成式与被动形式

1.动名词的一般形式通常表示一般性动作(即不是明确地在过去、现在或将来发生的动作)或者是与谓语所表示的动作同时发生的动作。例如:

I hate going out in such weather.我讨厌这种天气出门。

He put off making a decision. 他拖延时间,不做决定。

2.动名词的完成式表示一个动作完成状况,通常发生在谓语动词的动作之前。例如:

I am proud of having written such a good novel.我写了一本这样好的小说,感到很骄傲。

You should have apologized for not having kept your promise.你没有遵守诺言本来应该向我表示歉意。

I remember having seen this film before. 我记得以前看过这部电影。

I have failed again. I regret not having taken his advice. 我又失败了。我后悔没有听他的劝告。

Do you remember having ever promised me that? 你记得曾经答应过我这件事吗?

【注意】

1.在实际应用中,虽然动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的,但我们可以用动名词的一般式。例如:

Excuse me for coming late. 原谅我来晚了。

On arriving home, he called me. 他一到家,就给我打电话了。

Thank you for attending the meeting instead of me.谢谢你替我去参加了会议。

2.如果一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这个动作的承受者时,这个动名词一般来说要用被动形式。例如:

You can't go out without being allowed. 没有人批准你不能出去。

You can't eat anything before being operated on. 在动手术之前你不能吃东西。

This math problem is far from being worked out. 这道数学难题没有解出来。

Did you mind being punished by the teacher? 你受到老师的惩罚不介意吗?

She was furious at being denied admittance. 不让她去她很生气。

§13使用动名词应注意的几个问题

1.动名词的复合结构:如果一个动名词或动名词短语前用一个物主代词或名词的所有格(在口语中可以用宾格代词)来表示动名词的逻辑主语,这种结构被称为动名词的复合结构,动名词的复合结构具有以下句法功能:主语、宾语、表语等。例如:

It is no use your telling me not to worry. 你告诉我别担心是没有用的。(主语)

Your being right doesn't necessarily mean my being wrong. 你的正确未必就意味着我的错误。(主语或宾语)

The firm have deferred my going on holiday until next month. 商行已经把我的休假时间推迟到下个月。(宾语)

What's troubling me is your not having enough money.使我烦恼的是你没有足够的钱。(表语)

What made the teacher angry was Lipin's making much noise. 使教师生气的是李平的吵闹。(表语)

He laughed at my brother and me liking rice pudding.他嘲笑我的兄弟和我喜欢大米布丁。(用宾格代词,作介词的宾语)

There is no need for that being done.做那件事没有必要。

2.动名词做主语时,谓语动词一律用单数形式。例如:

Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.他们来支援对我们是很大的鼓舞。

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

3.当动名词作宾语而又带有自己的补足语(形容词或名词)时,要用it代表动名词,并将它放到补足语之后。例如:

I found it no use arguing with you.我觉得与你辩论是徒劳无益的。

I don't think it worthwhile buying such a dictionary. 我认为这样的词典不值得一买。

Do you consider it any good trying again? 你觉得再试一试会有好处吗?

【注意】能够用于这一句型常见的动词有:consider, find, think等。能用于这一句型常见的形容词和名词有:any good, no use, no good, worthwhile, useless, senseless, dangerous等。

4.下列短语中的介词常常省略,因此后面要接动名词。

1)Spend time(money) (in) 花时间(钱)(干某事),

2)be busy (in) 忙于(干某事)

3)lose no time (in) 不失时机(干某事)

4)There is no point (in)(干某事)毫无意义

5)waste time (in) 浪费时间(干某事)

6)keep on 继续(干某事)

7)have no difficulty (in) (干某事)没有困难

8)have fun (in) (干某事)有趣

9)have (no)trouble (in) (干某事)有(没有)困难

10) have headaches (in) (干某事) 头痛

11) end up (by) (以干某事)告终

12) take turns (at) 轮流 (干某事)

13) bother (about)(因干某事)烦恼

14) have a hard time (in)(因干某事)吃苦

15) be through (with) 完成

16) What's the use (of ) …(干某事)有什么用?

例如:

You needn't bother (about) coming up.你不必费心来跑一趟。

Let's take turns (at )doing it. 让我们轮流干吧!

5.动名词可以和介词构成短语,作定语用。能够被这种定语修饰的名词有:method of , way of, surprise at, art of, opportunity of, habit of, hope of, process of, possibility of , importance of, necessity of, intention of , means of , right of, experience of, reason for等。例如:

Do you have any experience in running schools? 你有管理学校的经验吗?

What's your reason for coming late? 你晚来是什么原因?

You must take this opportunity of taking part in the Asian Games. 你一定要抓住参加亚运会这次机会。

Do you approve of my way of dealing with this matter? 你赞成我处理这件事的方法吗?

6.如果一个动名词具有很多名词的特点:可以有自己的冠词,有自己的定语,在某种情况下有复数形式;并且也失去了许多动词的特点:没有完成式和被动式,没有自己的状语和宾语,这样的动名词被称为名词化的动名词。如果要表示它逻辑上的宾语,通常在这个名词化的动名词后加上一个介词of , 再加逻辑宾语。例如:

You should have given the classroom a good cleaning. 你本来应该把教室好好打扫一下。(有自己的冠词)

It was Tom who did the recording. 是汤姆录的音。(有自己的冠词)

This work needs careful planning.这工作需要周密的计划。(有自己的定语)

Did you paid any attention to their comings and goings? 你对他们的来踪去迹注意到了吗?(有复数形式)

Most of the digging , moving and compressing of earth was done by machines. 挖土、运土和打夯工作大部分用机器进行。(有自己的逻辑宾语)

7.动名词作表语与不定式作表语的比较:动名词主要说明行为本身,用来表示抽象、泛指的动作,并不明确表示动作发生的时间,而不定式则表示某次具体的,尚未发生的将来动作。例如:

My job is teaching English. 我的工作是教英语。(泛指的行为,表示职业)

My job is to teach them to read the text.我的工作是教会他们读课文。(表示一次具体的任务)

Another error they had made was to think they could beat their opponents.他们所犯的另一个错误,就是认为可能击败对手。(不定式作表语表示已经发生的动作)

主语如果是动名词,则表语也应用动名词,不能用不定式。主语如果是不定式,表语也应用不定式,不能用动名词。例如:

Seeing is believing.=To see is to believe. 眼见为实。(不能说:Seeing is to believe. To see is believing.)

如果动作十分抽象,已经失去动词性能而接近名词,则用动名词。例如:

My hobby is gardening. 园艺是我的爱好。

不说:My hobby is to garden.

My favorite winter sport is skating. 我最爱好的冬季运动是滑冰。(不说:My favorite winter sport is to skate.)

7,动名词短语有哪些????

常用动名词的短语 1、enjoy /like /love doing sth. 喜欢做某事 2、keep /keep on /carry on / go on doing sth. 继续做某事 3、feel like doing sth. 想要做某事 4、practice doing sth. 练习作某事 5、give up doing sth. 放弃作某事 6、be good at/ do well in doing sth. 擅长作某事 7、pay attention to doing sth. 注意作某事 8、what about/ how about doing sth. ….怎么样(好吗)? 9、Thank you for doing sth. 为…感谢某人 10、mind doing sth. 介意作某事 11、be used for doing sth./ be used to do sth. 、 被用来作某事 12、spend …(in) doing sth. 花时间作某时 13、be busy doing/ with sth. 忙于作某事 14、finish doing sth. 作完某时 15、look forward to doing. 盼望做某事 16、prefer doing sth. to doing sth. 喜欢…胜过… 17、be/get used to doing sth. 习惯作某事 18、keep / stop doing sth

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